Choose topic in which you have personal interest(EX: Instead of "Crime," which is an extremely broad
topic, choose "Efforts to Combat The Summer 1997 Murder Rate in Jackson, Tn.")
Select topic in which specific research can be developed through
periodicals, encyclopedias, pamphlets, magazines, personal
Narrow broad topic into specific focus
Choose 3 or 4 key points which you emphasize to support your
central theme (for our length speeches, 3 will be best).
In this class, the purpose will be either: (a) to inform, (b) to persuade,
(c) to entertain, or (d) to instruct/inform through demonstration
A well-written sentence or short paragraph which indicates, in short, what specific
information you want your audience to have learned by the end
of your speech.
For our speeches, a MINIMUM of 4 references, preferably more
Periodicals, magazines, newspapers, pamphlets, books
Television or radio newscasts or special programs
Internet (limit 2 sources)
Personal knowledge (do not rely on this heavily for
your first informative speech, lest you think you can
escape without concrete, specific research)
Develop OUTLINE of speech
3 or 4 Key Points
Hypothetical or factual stories to clarify or back facts
Short, condensed examples to prove points, primarily from
your research material
Background information on your supporting point, mostly
from your research material
Numerical information to indicate trends, theories, or
Do not over-statistic your audience....remember, they're
listening by ear and can't retain a lot of stats
Try to round any numbers over five figures to the nearest
Comparison of unfamiliar concept to familiar one
EX: "Trying to get rid of an annoying neighbor is
often like trying to kill a fly at a picnic.
They just keep coming back."
Often referred to as "similes," but for testing purposes in
a communications class, analogy is the preferred term.
Direct quotation or paraphrase from individual
- Expert in field
- Personal interview
Specific Dos & Don'ts of Speech Support
***When using statistics or quotations, specifically cite the
source from which you gained the statistics; or in the case of
a quotation, cite the specific individual, his or her title, and/or the experience which makes the person an expert. Also, cite the source, if applicable.
(EX 1: "In the July 14th issue of U.S. News and World Report,
a poll showed 56 per cent of Americans now support easing of
current abortion restrictions.")
***Do not simply read a long list of quotations or statistics. One or
two brief ones are sufficient to support your point. The key
thing you want is for your INFORMATION to be precise.
(EX 2: "In the latest issue of Parents magazine, Dr. Joe Blow says,
"The American family is in jeopardy because of some of the
excesses it has placed on itself.")
(EX 3: "Franklin D. Roosevelt once said, "The only thing we have to
fear is fear itself.")
***Use the SAMPLE OUTLINE as a guide to developing your speech outline
TO BE TURNED IN TO THE INSTRUCTOR. Do not slap together that
outline. Non-specific outlines can count against the overall
grade for your speech. They may not be handwritten.
***Use the SAMPLE OUTLINE as a guide on how to list references.
You are not required to list them in alphabetical order....but you are
asked to be specific and precise with your printed material.
***In the case of a personal interview, the proper form would be:
Personal interview with Dr. Jane Smith, psychologist,
Jackson, Tn., Jan. 25, 1993.
***In the case of Internet resources, you should use any title of
material, if available, and the specific Internet address.
(EX: "Tennessee Law Enforcement Association Page,"
http://www.tlea.org). Please do not create phony online
addresses. Your professor will check the computer for
accuracy, a task which is not time-consuming to do.
USE THE UNION LIBRARY as extensively as possible for your research material. Consult with the librarian on duty for help on your topic. He or she can help you
do a computer search to find where the latest periodical material is available. Please ask them. If you do not know how to use the Internet, if you are a freshmen, ask
for help during your library tour in CLU class. If you are not having that until later
in the quarter, or you are a sophomore or upperclassman, please ask for a short
instruction from Mr. Steve Baker in the library. He will be
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